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What Is the Internet of Things (IoT)

What Is the Internet of Things (IoT) and it’s standard and framework:

It’s hardly surprising that the IoT is gaining popularity as our world becomes more and more digital. But what is IoT? By making many commonplace activities more rapid, precise, and secure, IoT might have a profound impact on our daily lives. But how exactly does the IoT function? As this technology develops, what do you see as its possible uses and drawbacks? That’s a mouthful, but the Internet of Things (IoT) is already having a significant impact on our global society. Discover the most common IoT architectures with us!

What is the Internet of Things (IoT)

IoT, which stands for “Internet of Things,” is a network of devices that are all connected to each other and to the cloud. It also refers to the technology that allows devices to talk to each other and to the cloud.

The number of IoT-connected devices climbed by 8% in 2021 and is predicted to rise by 22% to 27 billion by 2025, according to IoT Analytics. The Internet of Things is used in manufacturing, automotive, healthcare, and retail.

How IoT Works?

The Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is made up of smart devices that can connect to the internet and use embedded systems like processors, sensors, and communication gear to collect, share, and act on data from their surroundings.

With the rise of cheap computer chips and the widespread use of wireless networks, anything, from a minute pill to bigger objects like an airplane, could become a part of the Internet of Things.

Importance of IoT:

People that use the internet of things can live and work smarter and have complete control over their lives. In addition to delivering smart home automation devices, IoT is critical to business. Organizations may use IoT to examine how their systems work in real-time, obtaining insights into everything from equipment performance to supply chain and logistics activity.

Different Types of IoT Systems:

There are three parts to an IoT system:

  1. Smart devices:

Every smart device contains a piece of equipment that has computing capabilities similar to those found in televisions, security cameras, and exercise machines. It gathers data from its surroundings, user inputs, or usage patterns and transmits data to and from its IoT application over the internet.

  1. IoT application:

IoT applications are a collection of services and software that combine data from various IoT devices. It analyses this data using machine learning or artificial intelligence (AI) technology and makes defensible choices. The IoT gadget is informed of these choices and then reacts intelligently to inputs.

  1. A graphical user interface:

A graphical user interface may be used to manage the IoT device or fleet of devices. A smartphone app or website that allows users to register and manage smart devices are common examples.

What is Industrial IoT?

Industrial IoT (IIoT) smart devices improve manufacturing, retail, health care, and other enterprises. Business leaders may utilise real-time data from sensors and other industrial devices to optimise operations. They advise on supply chain, logistics, HR, and production management to reduce costs and increase revenue.

Benefits of Industrial IoT:

  1. Public Sector: Public sector benefits from IoT. IoT-based applications may notify users of significant and minor water, power, and sewage outages for government-owned utilities. IoT applications can assess outages and transfer resources to help utilities recover quicker.
  2. Health Care: IoT asset monitoring benefits healthcare. Doctors, nurses, and other medical staff must know where patient support equipment is at a hospital’s large campus. IoT sensors track such assets, making them easier to find. These tracks hospital assets with no hurdles. Each department correctly utilises and pays for its physical assets.
  3. Manufacturing: Manufacturers may have an advantage in the market if they can take care of their equipment before it breaks down. If they maintain their equipment, manufacturers may have a competitive edge. Sensors detect industrial production issues. Sensor warnings enable producers immediately evaluate equipment accuracy or stop production until it’s corrected. Operating costs, uptime, and asset management improve.
  4. Automobile: IoT applications could bring big benefits to the automotive industry. IoT on manufacturing lines may also alert drivers when a vehicle’s equipment is likely to fail. IoT-based apps help automakers and suppliers understand how to maintain cars and notify owners.
  5. Logistics and Transport: IoT simplifies transportation. IoT sensor data may change the routes of inventory-carrying cars, trucks, ships, and trains based on weather, vehicle availability, and driver availability. Food, flower, and pharmaceutical companies could benefit from IoT monitoring apps that alert them when temperatures affect inventories.
  6. Retail: IoT applications may help retailers manage inventory, improve customer experience, optimise supply chains, and save costs. Smart shelves with weight sensors may collect RFID data and send it to an IoT platform to autonomously manage inventory and warn of shortages. Beacons may send customers personalised offers and incentives to engage them.
  7. Common General Safety: IoT can track assets and improve worker safety. ц IoT sensor-based systems can instantly notify and save them from accidents. IoT powers wearables that track health and the environment. These applications help people understand their health and allow clinicians remotely monitor patients.

Benefits of IoT to Organizations:

  • Improves employment productivity
  • Monitors business operations
  • Improves customer experience
  • Encourages organisations to adopt new business approaches
  • Provides tools to improve and modify business strategies
  • Saves client and business money and time with instant results
  • Adopt and integrate various business models as per technology update

What are IoT Applications?

IoT’s ability to enable and disseminate sensor data and device-to-device communication is driving a wide range of applications. Popular programmes and their functionalities are listed below.

  • crop observation
  • tracing the retail supply chain
  • diagnostics for self-driving cars
  • monitoring and disease diagnosis
  • Automation in intelligent factories
  • Smart city traffic and lighting systems
  • Smart house thermostats and security measures
  • Tracking devices for your health and fitness with various wearables
  • Tracking and improving physical assets with “ring-fencing” for better protection

Advantages and Disadvantages of IoT:

Advantages of IoT:

  • Sending data through a network saves time and money.
  • Better communication between connected electronic devices
  • Access to information at any time, from anywhere, on any device
  • Automating tasks improves service quality and reduces human intervention.

Disadvantages of IoT:

  • Hackers may steal personal data from more connected devices and more data shared.
  • Businesses may manage millions of IoT devices in the future.
  • Getting and tracking data from all these devices will be difficult.
  • System issues will corrupt all linked devices.
  • Without a universal IoT interoperability standard, devices from different manufacturers are hard to link.

IoT Standards and Framework:

IoT Standards:

Different types of IoT standards are as listed below:

  1. IPv6: The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has developed an open standard called IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) (IETF). Any low-power radio may interact with the internet thanks to the 6LoWPAN standard, including 804.15.4, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and Z-Wave (for home automation).
  2. ZigBee: ZigBee is a low-power, low-data-rate wireless network used mostly in industrial environments. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) standard 802.15.4 is used by ZigBee. The ZigBee Alliance created Dotdot, an IoT universal language that allows smart devices to communicate with one another while remaining secure on any network.
  3. LiteOS: Unix-like LiteOS runs wireless sensor networks. Smartphones, wearables, intelligent manufacturing, smart homes, and car internet work with LiteOS (IoV). The OS develops smart gadgets.
  4. OneM2M: OneM2M is an embedded machine-to-machine service layer that can link devices. OneM2M, a worldwide standardisation group, was established to provide reusable standards that allow IoT applications from many industries to connect.
  5. Data Distribution Service (DDS): The Object Management Group (OMG) created Data Distribution Service (DDS), an IoT standard for real-time, scalable, and high-performance M2M connectivity.
  6. Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP): AMQP is a published open source standard for asynchronous wired communications. AMQP facilitates secure and interoperable communication between organisations and applications. The protocol is used in client-server interactions and IoT device management.
  7. Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP): Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is an IETF-designed protocol that describes how low-power, compute-constrained IoT devices may function.
  8. Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN): LoRaWAN is a wide area network (WAN) protocol designed to support large networks with millions of low-power devices, such as smart cities.

IoT Framework:

  1. Amazon Web Services (AWS) IoT: Amazon’s IoT cloud platform is AWS IoT. This framework connects smart devices securely to the AWS cloud and other connected devices.
  2. Arm Mbed IoT: Arm Mbed IoT is an IoT app development platform based on Arm microcontrollers. By combining Mbed tools and services, the Arm Mbed IoT platform aims to create a scalable, connected, and secure environment for IoT devices.
  3. Microsoft’s Azure IoT Suite: Microsoft’s Azure IoT Suite is a platform of services that lets customers connect with and receive data from their IoT devices, do multidimensional analysis, transformation, and aggregation, and visualise those activities in a business-appropriate way.
  4. Google’s Brillo/Weave: Google’s Brillo/Weave platform deploys IoT apps quickly. The platform’s two foundations are Brillo, an Android-based operating system for embedded low-power devices, and Weave, an IoT-focused communication protocol that connects devices and clouds.
  5. Calvin: Ericsson created Calvin, an open-source IoT platform for creating and managing distributed applications that link devices. Calvin contains a runtime environment and a development framework for programmers.

Examples of IoT Devices:

Connected cars:

Vehicles can connect to the internet in many ways. Smart dashcams, infotainment systems, or even the vehicle’s connected gateway can be used to do this. They get information about the driver and the vehicle from the brakes, accelerator, speedometer, odometer, wheels, and fuel tanks. There are many ways to use connected cars:

  • Keeping track of rental car fleets can help the economy and save money.
  • Assisting parents in monitoring their children’s driving.
  • Automatically telling friends and family if you are in a car accident.
  • Vehicle maintenance needs may be predicted and avoided.

Connected Homes:

Smart home appliances increase network connectivity, efficiency, and safety. Thermostats and smart outlets monitor power use. IoT sensors are capable of monitoring a hydroponic plant and spotting smoke. Security cameras, door locks, and water leak sensors may identify and stop threats while alerting homeowners. Home IoT devices may be used to:

  • Auto-off devices not in use.
  • Property management and upkeep.
  • Lost keys or wallets.
  • Daily duties like sweeping, making coffee, etc.

Smart Cities:

IoT has improved urban planning and infrastructure upkeep. Governments use IoT to solve infrastructural, health, and environmental challenges. IoT applications can be used for:

  • Radiation levels and air quality can be measured.
  • Using smart lighting systems to cut down on energy costs.
  • determining what roadways, bridges, and pipelines need repaired.
  • Profitable parking management system with efficiency.

Smart Buildings:

IoT applications are used in buildings like college campuses and business buildings to make them run more efficiently. In smart buildings, IoT devices can be used to:

  • Reduces consumption of the energy
  • Decrease the maintenance cost
  • Efficient usage of work space

Bottom Line:

Since IoT is only getting started, optimistic growth predictions may be made. In the future, we will be connected in ways that seem impossible at the moment. Integrating IoT with AI will pave the way for novel uses in many fields.

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